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■SANCTION綿綿無絕期



United States President Donald Trump is scheduled to meet with North Korean leader Kim Jong-un on June 12th in Singapore. They will discuss North Korea’s denuclearization along with other things. President Trump has also been focusing on Iran’s denuclearization as well as trade with China. Trump has imposed sanctions on all three countries. What exactly does imposing sanctions mean? A sanction is a penalty or punishment for breaking a rule or law. For example, if someone does not pay their taxes, the government can punish them. For countries, it can mean some very serious things for the people who live there. They might not be able to trade with other countries or buy the things they are used to buying.

美國總統川普北韓領導人金正恩,預定於6 月12 日在新加坡首度舉行會談,北韓廢核是這場「美朝會」的重點。除了北韓,川普總統最近也關切伊朗去核化及中美貿易的議題。美國對中、伊、朝三國都施加了制裁,英文的說法是imposing sanctions。這是什麼意思呢?對違規或違法者施加的刑責或懲罰就叫sanction。例如,政府對逃稅之人開罰, 就是一種sanction。sanction 也可以針對國家,這對受制裁國是一件很嚴重的事,可能意謂被迫切斷與其他國家的經貿往來。



聯合國制裁



Your teachers and parents can punish you. The government can punish citizens of a country. Only the UN Security Council can apply sanctions on a whole country. Those sanctions must be followed by all the UN member countries. Normally, the Security Council does not use military force. Instead they limit the country’s economy and diplomatic privileges. When the offending nation fixes its problem, the punishment stops and sanctions are lifted.

老師、父母可罰你,政府可開罪人民,但在國際法上, 只有聯合國安全理事會可對國家祭出集體制裁,而且其他會員國都得遵守這項制裁令。安理會通常不會發動軍事或武力制裁,而是限縮受制裁國的經貿活動或外交特權。只要受制裁國改正缺失,就可停止懲罰,取消制裁。

■單邊制裁



There are other kinds of sanctions as well. Individual countries can decide by themselves to put sanctions on other countries. This is called a unilateral sanction. There are economic sanctions, like the USD $60 billion Chinese import tariffs that Trump announced in March. Diplomatic sanctions are another kind, like when Taiwan was excluded from the World Health Assembly by China. There are even sports sanctions that stop national sports teams from competing in international events, like the World Cup soccer match.

國際間還有另一種由個別國家發動,對其他國家進行制裁的模式,謂之「單邊制裁」(譯按:字首uni 表示單個、一個)。經濟制裁是常見的單邊制裁手段,例如美國川普總統3 月宣布對中國課以600 億美金的進口關稅。外交制裁也是一配對約會種方式,例如中國日前不允許臺灣出席世界衛生大會。甚至運動也可制裁,例如禁止某國運動團隊參加世界杯足球賽等國際體育賽事。

■制裁客體變成受害主體



Even though many countries use sanctions, it’s still a controversial decision. They can both help and hurt a country. For example, after the US put economic sanctions on China, China responded with their own sanctions on US goods. The economies of both countries suffer. In countries with less money, like North Korea, a sanction can be dangerous. The United Nations Children’s Fund has said that more than 60,000 children might starve because of the sanctions imposed on the country.

雖然許多國家動用單邊制裁,但這種機制仍充滿爭議,就像兩面刃,它有利也有害。例如,美國宣布對中國經濟制裁後,中國也對美國貨品「反制裁」,結果就是中美經濟兩敗俱傷。對北韓這種較為窮困的國家,制裁可能帶來巨大傷害。聯合國兒童基金會即曾指出,北韓在各國制裁下,超過6 萬名兒童可能處於挨餓狀態。

■最後手段VS. 優先選項



Since sanctions are so controversial, most countries consider them to be a last resort. UN sanctions, or sanctions agreed upon by multiple countries, work better than unilateral sanctions. When sanctions are used, it’s usually because diplomacy or other ways of solving problems have failed. That’s why leaders almost always look for better solutions to economic or political problems.

制裁具爭議性,多數國家通常視其為最後手段。聯合國決議的制裁,或經多數國家同意的制裁行動,效果通常優於個別國家發動的單邊制裁。往往在外交或其他爭端解決機制皆無效時,才會動用制裁,此乃為何多數國家的領導人,總會優先尋找其他方案,來解決國家之間的經濟或政治爭端。




製作人/朱立群
文/Sloan Sabbith

(本文轉載自【新一代兒童週報】039期)

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